Perillaldehyde Inhibits AHR Signaling and Activates NRF2 Antioxidant Pathway in Human Keratinocytes.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 ;2018:9524657. Epub 2018 Feb 14. PMID: 29643980
The skin covers the outer surface of the body, so the epidermal keratinocytes within it are susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental pollutants such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a potent activator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Antioxidant activity is generally mediated by the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) axis in human keratinocytes. Perillaldehyde is the main component of, which is a medicinal antioxidant herb traditionally consumed in East Asia. However, the effect of perillaldehyde on the AHR/ROS and/or NRF2/HO1 pathways remains unknown. In human keratinocytes, we found that perillaldehyde (1) inhibited BaP-induced AHR activation and ROS production, (2) inhibited BaP/AHR-mediated release of the CCL2 chemokine, and (3) activated the NRF2/HO1 antioxidant pathway. Perillaldehyde is thus potentially useful for managing inflammatory skin diseases or disorders related to oxidative stress.