Environmental Pollution as a Risk Factor in Testicular Tumour Development: Focus on the Interaction between Bisphenol A and the Associated Immune Response.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Oct 25 ;16(21). Epub 2019 Oct 25. PMID: 31731436
Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor to which animals and humans are highly exposed. Many reports have established a relationship between BPA exposure and breast cancer incidence, especially during critical periods of development. However, its effects on the immune response in testicular tumour growth have not yet been described. Thus, we wanted to analyse the effect of perinatal BPA exposure in pregnant female mice and the immune response modulation and tumour growth in an intratesticular cancer model in offspring male mice. Pregnant female mice were exposed to a dose of 250 mg/kg/day/body weight of BPA in their drinking water. In adulthood, male offspring underwent intrascrotal inoculation with 4T1 cancer cells. On day 21 after inoculation, mice were euthanised, and serum was obtained to measure BPA levels using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. The percentages of immune cell populations in peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), the spleen and tumours were evaluated by flow cytometry. In addition, the tumour expression of IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β was analysed by RT-PCR. Of note, we found detectable circulating levels of BPA in the offspring of mothers exposed to it while pregnant. Remarkably, BPA treatment promoted tumour growth by about 75% compared to mice coming from female mice that did not receive the compound. Perinatal exposure to BPA modulated the percentages of different immune cells in the spleen and PLN. In addition, the expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL-10 and TNF-α) in the tumours was significantly enhanced compared to control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, the perinatal BPA administrationin pregnant female mice modulated different cellular and molecular immune components that resulted in outstanding testicular tumour size in male offspring.