Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves: a review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Apr 2 ;163:229-40. Epub 2015 Jan 28. PMID: 25637828
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves, known as Shi Ye (in Chinese), have a long history as a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of ischemia stroke, angina, internal hemorrhage, hypertension, atherosclerosis and some infectious diseases, etc. Additionally, persimmon leaves could be used as healthy products, cosmetics and so on, which have become increasingly popular in Asia, such as Japan, Korea and China etc.
AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present paper reviewed the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, analytical methods, biological activities and toxicology of persimmon leaves in order to assess the ethnopharmacological use and to explore therapeutic potentials and future opportunities for research.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on persimmon leaves were gathered via the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Pudmed, Web of Science, CNKI and EMBASE) and libraries. Additionally, information was also obtained from some local books.
RESULTS: Persimmon leaves have played an important role in Chinese system of medicines. The main compositions of persimmon leaves were flavonoids, terpenoids, etc. Scientific studies on extracts and formulations revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as, antioxidative, hypolipidemic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, hemostasis activities and effects on cardiovascular system. Based on the pharmacological activities, persimmon leaves were widely used in clinic including treatment of cardiovascular disease, hemostasis, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and beauty treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Persimmon leaves probably have therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment for cerebral arteriosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension. It showed significant neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, it can regulate immune function and inhibite inflammation. Further investigations are needed to explore individual bioactive compounds responsible for these pharmacological effects in vitro and in vivo and the mode of actions. Further safety assessments and clinical trials should be performed before it can be integrated into medicinal practices.