Pharmacokinetics of three neonicotinoid insecticides upon contact exposure in the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.
Chem Res Toxicol. 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10. PMID: 30525514
Neonicotinoid insecticides differ in their acute contact toxicity to honey bees. Here we investigated the uptake, metabolic fate and excretion of imidacloprid and two much less toxic chemotypes, thiacloprid and acetamiprid, upon contact expo-sure in honey bees as ADME data for this mode of entry are lacking. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by track-ing a 14C-label and HPLC coupled to ESI-MS. Imidacloprid penetrates the honey bee cuticle much faster and more readily compared to thiacloprid and acetamiprid. Thus revealing a pharmacokinetic component, i.e. faster penetration and higher steady state internal body concentrations, contributing to its higher acute contact toxicity.