Potential Prophylactic Properties of Apple and Characterization of Potent Bioactive from cv."Granny Smith"Displaying Strong Antimutagenicity in Models Including Human Lymphoblast TK6(+/-) Cell Line.
J Food Sci. 2016 Jan 11. Epub 2016 Jan 11. PMID: 26753515
Potential prophylactic attributes in terms of antimutagenicity, antioxidant, and radioprotective properties were evaluated for 8 common apple cultivars namely"Fuji,""Golden Delicious,""Granny Smith,""Ambri Kashmiri,""Kinnaur,""Red Delicious,""Royal Gala,"and"Shimla,"where cultivar based significant variation was observed. Cv."Granny Smith"displayed significantly higher and broad spectrum antimutagenicity in Escherichia coli rpoB based rifampicin resistance (Rif(R) ) assay, whereas,"Ambri Kashmiri,""Royal Gala,"and"Shimla"showed lower antimutagenicity. Cultivars"Ambri Kashmiri,""Kinnaur,"and"Red Delicious"exhibited strong antioxidant activity than cv."Granny Smith"as assayed by radical scavenging, reducing potential and radioprotective property assays. The antioxidant and radioprotective properties were found to be better correlated than antimutagenicity. Suppression of error-prone DNA repair pathway (such as E. coli SOS response) was found to be one of the possible mechanisms contributing to its antimutagenicity. Phenolic extract of"Granny Smithˮ showing higher antimutagenicity was HPLC purified and the bioactive fraction (tR 35.4 min) contributing maximally (∼80%) to the observed antimutagenicity was identified as procyanidin dimer (PD) by ESI-MS/MS. The above observed antimutagenicity in bacterial assay system was well reproduced in Thymidine Kinase Mutation (TKM) assay performed using human lymphoblast cell line (TK6(+/-) ) cell line making the findings more prophylactically relevant.