Phloretin Inhibits Platelet-derived Growth Factor-BB-induced Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Neointimal Formation After Carotid Injury.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2015 May ;65(5):444-55. PMID: 25945863
Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration are key factors in many cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effects of phloretin on platelet-derived growth factor homodimer (PDGF-BB)-induced rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC) proliferation, migration, and neointimal formation after carotid injury. Phloretin significantly inhibited the PDGF-BB-stimulated RASMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (10-100μM). Also, PDGF-BB-stimulated RASMC migration was inhibited by phloretin at 50 μM. Pretreating RASMC with phloretin dose-dependently inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases activation. Furthermore, phloretin increased p27 and decreased cyclin-dependent kinase 2, CDK4 expression, and p-Rb activation in PDGF-BB-stimulated RASMC in a concentration-dependent manner (10-50 μM). PDGF-BB-induced cell adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression were blocked by phloretin at 50 μM. Preincubation with phloretin dose-dependently reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species production. In vivo study showed that phloretin (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced neointimal formation 14 days after carotid injury in rats. Thus, phloretin may have potential as a treatment against atherosclerosis and restenosis after vascular injury.