Phloretin protects macrophages from-induced inflammation through the TLR4 signaling pathway.
J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Dec 30. Epub 2019 Dec 30. PMID: 31893612
Macrophages are the cells of the first-line defense system, which protect the body from foreign invaders such as bacteria. However, Gram-negative bacteria have always been the major challenge for macrophages due to the presence of lipopolysaccharides on their outer cell membrane. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of phloretin, a flavonoid commonly found in apple, on the protection of macrophages frominfection. RAW 264.7 cells infected with standard, or virulentK1 21 strain were treated with phloretin in a dose- dependent manner to examine its efficacy in protection of macrophages. Our results revealed that phloretin treatment reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and generation of reactive oxygen species along with reducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines induced by theandK1 21 strains in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, treatment of phloretin downregulated the expression of-induced major inflammatory markers i.e. cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the TLR4-mediated NF-κB pathway was activated in-infected macrophages but was potentially downregulated by phloretin at the transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, our data suggest that phloretin treatment protects macrophages from infection of virulentK1 strain by downregulating the TLR4-mediated signaling pathway and inhibiting NO and cytokine production, eventually protecting macrophages from-induced inflammation.