Induction of apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells by phloretin.
Methods. 2007 Aug;42(4):339-48. PMID: 18158826
Phloretin, which is present in apples and pears, has been found to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells and induce apoptosis of B16 melanoma and HL60 human leukemia cells. The present study examined whether and how phloretin induces apoptosis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Phloretin (0-100 micromol/L) substantially decreased viable cell number and induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of total cell lysates revealed that phloretin increased the protein levels of Bax but had no effect on Bcl-2. In addition, phloretin induced cleavage of caspase-8, -9, -7, and -3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, phloretin increased the levels of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo in the cytosol. The present results indicate that phloretin inhibits HT-29 cell growth by inducing apoptosis, which may be mediated through changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability and activation of the caspase pathways.