Photobiomodulation Mitigates Cerebrovascular Leakage Induced by the Parkinsonian Neurotoxin MPTP.
Biomolecules. 2019 10 4 ;9(10). Epub 2019 Oct 4. PMID: 31590236
Mia San Miguel
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is commonly used to model Parkinson's disease (PD) as it specifically damages the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Recent studies in mice have, however, provided evidence that MPTP also compromises the integrity of the brain's vasculature. Photobiomodulation (PBM), the irradiation of tissue with low-intensity red light, mitigates MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, but whether PBM also mitigates MPTP-induced damage to the cerebrovasculature has not been investigated. This study aimed to characterize the time course of cerebrovascular disruption following MPTP exposure and to determine whether PBM can mitigate this disruption. Young adult male C57BL/6 mice were injected with 80 mg/kg MPTP or isotonic saline and perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC-labelled albumin at various time points post-injection. By 7 days post-injection, there was substantial and significant leakage of FITC-labelled albumin into both the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc;<0.0001) and the caudate-putamen complex (CPu;≤ 0.0003); this leakage partly subsided by 14 days post-injection. Mice that were injected with MPTP and treated with daily transcranial PBM (670 nm, 50 mW/cm, 3 min/day), commencing 24 hours after MPTP injection, showed significantly less leakage of FITC-labelled albumin in both the SNc (<0.0001) and CPu (= 0.0003) than sham-treated MPTP mice, with levels of leakage that were not significantly different from saline-injected controls. In summary, this study confirms that MPTP damages the brain's vasculature, delineates the time course of leakage induced by MPTP out to 14 days post-injection, and provides the first direct evidence that PBM can mitigate this leakage. These findings provide new understanding of the use of the MPTP mouse model as an experimental tool and highlight the potential of PBM as a therapeutic tool for reducing vascular dysfunction in neurological conditions.