Photodynamic inactivation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli: A metalloporphyrin comparison.
J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016 Dec ;165:51-57. Epub 2016 Oct 15. PMID: 27768953
Troy A Skwor
Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics threatens proper clinical treatment and jeopardizes their use in prevention. A photodynamic approach appears to be an innovative treatment option, even for multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Three components are utilized in photodynamic inactivation: a photosensitizer, light source, and oxygen. Variations in photosensitizers strongly influence microbial binding and bactericidal activity. In this study, four different cationic metalloporphyrins (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Pd(2+), Zn(2+)) were compared to the free-base ligand 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin regarding their electronic properties and generation of reactive oxygen species upon subsequent 405nm violet-blue irradiation. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as representatives of Gram-positive and -negative, respectively, to assess bactericidal effects by the photodynamic process. Bacterial cultures were pre-incubated with porphyrins and exposed to varying doses of 405nm irradiation (0-30J/cm(2)). Metalloporphyrins containing Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) demonstrated minimal effects on viability. Pronounced bactericidal activity was evident with free-base ligand, Zn(2+), and Pd(2+); though significantly stronger effects were apparent with Pd(2+). Photodynamic killing was directly proportional to reactive oxygen species production post-illumination. These data provide new insight into the influence of metal chelation on photosensitizer activity on bactericidal singlet oxygen production. The strong anti-microbial photodynamic action through the use of a portable light-emitting diode over short time intervals (seconds) provides support for its potential use in self-treatment.