Phyllanthus Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell, PC-3, Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis through Multiple Signalling Pathways (MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, NFκB, and Hypoxia).
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013 ;2013:609581. Epub 2013 Apr 16. PMID: 23690850
Phyllanthus is a traditional medicinal plant that has been found to have antihepatitis, antibacterial, and anticancer properties. The present studies were to investigate the in vitro molecular mechanisms of anticancer effects of Phyllanthus (P. amarus, P. niruri, P. urinaria, and P. watsonii) plant extracts in human prostate adenocarcinoma. The cancer ten-pathway reporter array was performed and revealed that the expression of six pathway reporters were significantly decreased (Wnt, NFκB, Myc/Max, hypoxia, MAPK/ERK, and MAPK/JNK) in PC-3 cells after treatment with Phyllanthus extracts. Western blot was conducted and identified several signalling molecules that were affected in the signalling pathways including pan-Ras, c-Raf, RSK, Elk1, c-Jun, JNK1/2, p38 MAPK, c-myc, DSH, β-catenin, Akt, HIF-1α, GSK3β, NFκB p50 and p52, Bcl-2, Bax, and VEGF, in treated PC-3 cells. A proteomics-based approach, 2D gel electrophoresis, was performed, and mass spectrometry (MS/MS) results revealed that there were 72 differentially expressed proteins identified in treated PC-3 cells and were involved in tumour cell adhesion, apoptosis, glycogenesis and glycolysis, metastasis, angiogenesis, and protein synthesis and energy metabolism. Overall, these findings suggest that Phyllanthus can interfere with multiple signalling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and be used as a potential therapeutic candidate for treatment of cancer.