Piperine suppressed the growth of human melanoma cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antitumor and Apoptosis-inducing Effects of Piperine on Human Melanoma Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2019 Apr ;39(4):1883-1892. PMID: 30952729
Eun Seon Yoo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Piperine is a major pungent alkaloid present in black pepper (Piper nigrum L). This study investigated the potential anticancer effects of piperine on human melanoma cells and explored the potential pharmacological mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies were performed using the MTT assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, western blotting, a xenograft model, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Piperine inhibited the growth of melanoma cells. Several apoptotic events were observed following treatment, as revealed by DAPI staining. Piperine increased the expression of BCL2-associated X, apoptosis regulator (BAX), cleaved poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, cleaved caspase-9, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase and phospho-p38, and reduced that of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of mice for 4 weeks with piperine inhibited tumor growth without apparent toxicity. Piperine increased the expression of apoptotic cells and cleaved-caspase-3 protein and reduced the expression of phospho-ERK1/2 protein in melanoma tumors.
CONCLUSION: Piperine suppressed the growth of human melanoma cells by the induction of apoptosis via the inhibition of tumor growth of human melanoma cells and tumor xenograft models.