Pistachio Consumption Alleviates Inflammation and Improves Gut Microbiota Composition in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.
Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jan 6 ;21(1). Epub 2020 Jan 6. PMID: 31935892
High-fat diet (HFD) induces inflammation and microbial dysbiosis, which are components of the metabolic syndrome. Nutritional strategies can be a valid tool to prevent metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the chronic intake of pistachio prevents obesity-associated inflammation and dysbiosis in HFD-fed mice. Three groups of male mice (four weeks old;= 8 per group) were fed for 16 weeks with a standard diet (STD), HFD, or HFD supplemented with pistachios (HFD-P; 180 g/kg of HFD). Serum, hepatic and adipose tissue inflammation markers were analyzed in HFD-P animals and compared to HFD and STD groups. Measures of inflammation, obesity, and intestinal integrity were assessed. Fecal samples were collected for gut microbiota analysis. Serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels were significantly reduced in HFD-P compared to HFD. Number and area of adipocytes, crown-like structure density, IL-1β, TNF-α, F4-80, and CCL-2 mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in HFD-P subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, compared to HFD. A significantreduction in the number of inflammatory foci and IL-1β and CCL-2 gene expression was observed in the liver of HFD-P mice compared with HFD./ratio was reduced in HFD-P mice in comparison to the HFD group. A pistachio diet significantly increased abundance of healthy bacteria genera such as,,,,, and, and greatly reduced bacteria associated with inflammation, such as,,, and. The intestinal conductance was lower in HFD-P mice than in the HFD mice, suggesting an improvement in the gut barrier function. The results of the present study showed that regular pistachio consumption improved inflammation in obese mice. The positive effects could be related to positive modulation of the microbiota composition.