Iron dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease: multimodal brain permeable iron chelating drugs, possessing neuroprotective-neurorescue and amyloid precursor protein-processing regulatory activities as therapeutic agents.
Prog Neurobiol. 2007 Aug;82(6):348-60. Epub 2007 Jun 19. PMID: 17659826
Considering the multi-etiological character of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the current pharmacological approaches using drugs oriented towards a single molecular target possess limited ability to modify the course of the disease and thus, offer a partial benefit to the patient. In line with this concept, novel strategies include the use of a cocktail of several drugs and/or the development of a single molecule, possessing two or more active neuroprotective-neurorescue moieties that simultaneously manipulate multiple targets involved in AD pathology. A consistent observation in AD is a dysregulation of metal ions (Fe(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+)) homeostasis and consequential induction of oxidative stress, associated with beta-amyloid aggregation and neurite plaque formation. In particular, iron has been demonstrated to modulate the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor holo-protein expression by a pathway similar to that of ferritin L-and H-mRNA translation through iron-responsive elements in their 5'UTRs. This review will discuss two separate scenarios concerning multiple therapy targets in AD, sharing in common the implementation of iron chelation activity: (i) novel multimodal brain-permeable iron chelating drugs, possessing neuroprotective-neurorescue and amyloid precursor protein-processing regulatory activities; (ii) natural plant polyphenols (flavonoids), such as green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin, reported to have access to the brain and to possess multifunctional activities, such as metal chelation-radical scavenging, anti-inflammation and neuroprotection.