Polysaccharide extracts of Astragalus membranaceus and Atractylodes macrocephala promote intestinal epithelial cell migration by activating the polyamine-mediated Kchannel.
Chin J Nat Med. 2018 Sep ;16(9):674-682. PMID: 30269844
Astragalus membranaceus (Radix Astragali, RA) and Atractylodes macrocephala (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, RAM) are often used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. In the present study, we determined the effects of polysaccharides extracts from these two herbs on IEC-6 cell migration and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. A migration model with IEC-6 cells was induced using a single-edged razor blade along the diameter of cell layers in six-well polystyrene plates. The cells were grown in control media or media containing spermidine (5μmol·L, SPD), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (2.5 mmol·L, DFMO), 4-Aminopyridine (40μmol·L, 4-AP), the polysaccharide extracts of RA or RAM (50, 100, or 200 mg·L), DFMO plus SPD, or DFMO plus polysaccharide extracts of RA or RAM for 12 or 24 h. Next, cytosolic free Ca([Ca]) was measured using laser confocal microscopy, and cellular polyamine content was quantified with HPLC. Kv1.1 mRNA expression was assessed using RT-qPCR and Kv1.1 and RhoA protein expressions were measured with Western blotting analysis. A cell migration assay was carried out using Image-Pro Plus software. In addition, GC-MS was introduced to analyze the monosaccharide composition of both polysaccharide extracts. The resutls showed that treatment with polysaccharide extracts of RA or RAM significantly increased cellular polyamine content, elevated [Ca]and accelerated migration of IEC-6 cells, compared with the controls (P<0.01). Polysaccharide extracts not only reversed the inhibitory effects of DFMO on cellular polyamine content and [Ca], but also restored IEC-6 cell migration to control level (P<0.01 or<0.05). Kv1.1 mRNA and protein expressions were increased (P<0.05) after polysaccharide extract treatment in polyamine-deficient IEC-6 cells and RhoA protein expression was increased. Molar ratios of D-ribose, D-arabinose, L-rhamnose, D-mannose, D-glucose, and D-galactose was 1.0 : 14.1 : 0.3 : 19.9 : 181.3 : 6.3 in RA and 1.0 : 4.3 : 0.1 : 5.7 : 2.8 : 2.2 in RAM. In conclusion, treatment with RA and RAM polysaccharide extracts stimulated migration of intestinal epithelial cells via a polyamine-Kv1.1 channel activated signaling pathway, which facilitated intestinal injury healing.