Polysaccharide rich extract (PRE) from Tinospora cordifolia inhibits the intracellular survival of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages by nitric oxide induction.
Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2018 12 ;113:81-90. Epub 2018 Sep 26. PMID: 30514517
Pramod Kumar Gupta
Plethora of clinical and scientific information obtained in recent past has strengthened the idea that targeting critical constituents of host immune system may have beneficial outcomes for the treatment of tuberculosis. Macrophages being the primary host for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, offer an attractive target for modulation. Owing to their negligible toxicity, plant derived polysaccharides with the ability to activate macrophages; are suitable candidates for immunomodulation. In the present study, effects of polysaccharide rich extract (PRE) isolated from Tinospora cordifolia, on the survival of intracellular MTB strains and activation of macrophages were investigated. PRE treatment up regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ in RAW 264.7 cell line. Up regulation in the expression of NOS2 was observed along with concomitant enhanced nitric oxide production post PRE treatment. Surface expression of MHC-II and CD-86 was up regulated after PRE treatment. Above results suggested the classical activation of macrophages by PRE treatment. Furthermore, PRE treatment led to the activation of all the three classes of MAPK i.e p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs. Further, PRE up regulated the expression of cytokines, NOS-2, MHC-II and CD-86 in MTB infected macrophages. PRE treatment inhibited the intracellular survival of drug resistant MTB in macrophages which was partially attributed to PRE mediated NO induction. Thus our data demonstrate classical activation of macrophages by PRE treatment and killing of intracellular MTB by NO induction.