Polyunsaturated fatty acids and DNA methylation in colorectal cancer - GreenMedInfo Summary
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and DNA methylation in colorectal cancer.
World J Clin Cases. 2019 Dec 26 ;7(24):4172-4185. PMID: 31911898
Mostafa Moradi Sarabi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been designated a major global problem, especially due to its high prevalence in developed countries. CRC mostly occurs sporadically (75%-80%), and only 20%-25% of patients have a family history. Several processes are involved in the development of CRC such as a combination of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation play a vital role in the progression of CRC. Complex interactions between susceptibility genes and environmental factors, such as a diet and sedentary lifestyle, lead to the development of CRC. Clinical and experimental studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in preventing CRC. From a mechanistic viewpoint, it has been suggested that PUFAs are pleiotropic agents that alter chromatin remodeling, membrane structure and downstream cell signaling. Moreover, PUFAs can alter the epigenomemodulation of DNA methylation. In this review, we summarize recent investigations linking PUFAs and DNA methylation-associated CRC risk.