Potential ofto Improve Glucose Control for the Prevention of Diabetes and Related Metabolic Alterations: A Systematic Review of Animal and Human Studies.
Nutrients. 2020 Jul 10 ;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 10. PMID: 32664295
(MO) is a multipurpose plant consumed as food and known for its medicinal uses, among others. Leaves, seeds and pods are the main parts used as food or food supplements. Nutritionally rich and with a high polyphenol content in the form of phenolic acids, flavonoids and glucosinolates, MO has been shown to exert numerous in vitro activities and in vivo effects, including hypoglycemic activity. A systematic search was carried out in the PubMed database and reference lists on the effects of MO on glucose metabolism. Thirty-three animal studies and eight human studies were included. Water and organic solvent extracts of leaves and, secondly, seeds, have been extensively assayed in animal models, showing the hypoglycemic effect, both under acute conditions and in long-term administrations and also prevention of other metabolic changes and complications associated to the hyperglycemic status. In humans, clinical trials are scarce, with variable designs and testing mainly dry leaf powder alone or mixed with other foods or MO aqueous preparations. Although the reported results are encouraging, especially those from postprandial studies, more human studies are certainly needed with more stringent inclusion criteria and a sufficient number of diabetic or prediabetic subjects. Moreover, trying to quantify the bioactive substances administered with the experimental material tested would facilitate comparison between studies.