The potential neuroprotective effect of allicin and melatonin in acrylamide-induced brain damage in rats.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12. PMID: 34120280
Hanan A Edres
Acrylamide (ACR) is an unsaturated monomer that served various fields; however, it is a potent neurotoxin. The target of the present study is to explore the neuroprotective efficacy of allicin and melatonin on ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-six male adult rats were non-selectively separated into six groups: placebo, allicin (20 mg/kg b.w daily per os), melatonin (10 mg/kg b.w 3 times/week per os), ACR (50 mg/kg b.w daily per os), ACR-allicin, and ACR-melatonin at the same doses as the preceding groups. The assessment of brain biomarkers, neurotransmitters, antioxidative status, Nrf2 signaling pathway, and histopathological analyses was performed following 21 days. ACR exposure induced brain lipid and DNA oxidative damage as well as reduced the glutathione (GSH) levels. The obvious brain oxidative injuries contributed to distinct brain dysfunction that was assured by alteration of brain neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and acetylcholinesterase) and pathological brain lesions. Furthermore, ACR exposure increased hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and amyloid protein (AB1-42). Finally, the mRNA transcripts of brain Keap-1, Nrf2, and NF-kB were upregulated after ACR intoxication. Interestingly, allicin and melatonin alleviated the ACR-induced brain damage assessed by the normalization of the mentioned analyses. The present study demonstrated the protective role of both allicin and melatonin in ACR-prompted neuropathy by alleviation of redox imbalance and enhancement of neurotransmitters as well as relieving DNA damage and anti-inflammatory effect.