Power frequency magnetic fields induced reactive oxygen species-related autophagy in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014 Dec ;57:108-14. Epub 2014 Oct 19. PMID: 25450462
Power frequency magnetic fields (PFMF) have been reported to affect several cellular functions, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PFMF on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) autophagy. After cells were exposed to 50 Hz PFMF at 2 mT for 0.5 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, we observed a significant increase in autophagic markers at 6 h, including (i) higher microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), (ii) the increased formation of GFP-LC3 puncta, and (iii) increased numbers of autophagic vacuoles under transmission electron microscope. Moreover, we provide convincing evidence using chloroquine (CQ) that the increase of autophagic markers was the result of enhanced autophagic flux and not the suppression of lysosomal function. In a search for molecular mechanisms underlying PFMF-mediated autophagy, we observe that the autophagic process involved reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was independent of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.