Preliminary studies on the formulation of immune stimulating complexes using saponin fromleaves.
Heliyon. 2019 Jun ;5(6):e01962. Epub 2019 Jun 22. PMID: 31294113
Chioma Miracle Ojiako
There have been several modifications in the use of immune stimulating complexes as adjuvants, such as the replacement of phospholipids with saponin content. Not much research has been done on the use of local alternatives. This actually instigated the use of a local alternative saponin source fromleaves to formulate Iscomatrix adjuvant. The Iscomatrix samples used in this study were formulated using different methods (the rapid injection, the reversed rapid injection, the slow/dropwise injection and the reversed slow/dropwise injection methods). Furthermore, the quantity of the components was also varied. These formulated samples were compared with other adjuvants and analysed for their ability to induce antibody and cell mediated immune responses using animal model i.e. mice. The results showed that the Iscomatrix samples formulated, were able to induce significant humoral and antibody mediated immune response (ranging from 16.7 % - 38.88 %) and they also elicited cell mediated immune response (ranging from 8.33 % - 16.7 %) when compared to the models that were administered with antigen only. Further characterizations were made, such as pH, UV scanning, Scanning Electron Microscopy. The analysis revealed that the samples were slightly soluble in distilled water with a neutral pH ranging from 7.26 - 7.43. The UV analysis also indicated that they all had a close range of absorption peaks (between 266.8-269.37 nm). Saponin fromleaves can be used to formulate Iscomatrix adjuvant capable of stimulating cell mediated and antibody mediated immune responses.