Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A, E and S induces transgenerational effects on male reproductive functions in mice.
Toxicol Sci. 2019 Sep 18. Epub 2019 Sep 18. PMID: 31532523
This study was performed to examine the transgenerational effects of bisphenol (BP) A analogues, BPE and BPS on male reproductive functions using mice as a model. CD-1 mice (F0) were orally exposed to control treatment (corn oil), BPA, BPE or BPS (0.5 or 50µg/kg/day) from gestational day 7 (the presence of vaginal plug = 1) to birth. Mice from F1 and F2 offspring were used to generate F3 males. Prenatal exposure to BPA, BPE and BPS decreased sperm counts and/or motility and disrupted the progression of germ cell development as morphometric analyses exhibited an abnormal distribution of the stages of spermatogenesis in F3 males. Dysregulated serum levels of estradiol-17β and testosterone, as well as expression of steroidogenic enzymes in F3 adult testis were also observed. In the neonatal testis, although apoptosis and DNA damage were not affected, mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases, histone methyltransferases and their associated factors were increased by BP exposure. Furthermore, BP exposure induced immunoreactive expression of DNMT3A in Sertoli cells, strengthened DNMT3B and weakened H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 in germ cells of the neonataltestis, whereas DNMT1, H3K4me3 and H3K27ac were not affected. In adult testis, stage-specific DNMT3B was altered by BP exposure, although DNMT3A, H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 expression remained stable. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA, BPE and BPS induces transgenerational effects on male reproductive functions probably due to altered epigenetic modification following disruption of DNMTs and histone marks in the neonatal and/or adult testis.