Antidiabetic Effects of Hydroxytyrosol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence.
Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Jun 21 ;8(6). Epub 2019 Jun 21. PMID: 31234300
Insulin resistance, a pathological condition characterized by defects in insulin action leads to the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease which is currently on the rise that pose an enormous economic burden to healthcare systems worldwide. The current treatment and prevention strategies are considerably lacking in number and efficacy and therefore new targeted therapies and preventative strategies are urgently needed. Plant-derived chemicals such as metformin, derived from the French lilac, have been used to treat/manage insulin resistance and T2DM. Other plant-derived chemicals which are not yet discovered, may have superior properties to prevent and manage T2DM and thus research into this area is highly justifiable. Hydroxytyrosol is a phenolic phytochemical found in olive leaves and olive oil reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidiabetic properties. The present review summarizes the current in vitro and in vivo studies examining the antidiabetic properties of hydroxytyrosol and investigating the mechanisms of its action.