Analysis of influenza virus-induced perturbation in autophagic flux and its modulation during Vitamin D3 mediated anti-apoptotic signaling.
Virus Res. 2020 Mar 28 ;282:197936. Epub 2020 Mar 28. PMID: 32234325
Nachiket M Godbole
Vitamin D3/Calcitriol supplementation in humans is associated with reduced incidence and severity during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Apoptosis in response to IAV infection is a major contributor to host cell death and tissue damage; however, its modulation by Vitamin D3 remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate the efficacy of Vitamin D3 in preventing apoptosis induction by pandemic influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus in human alveolar cells (A549). Human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 was used to assess the cytotoxic effects of IAV infection. Immunoblotting and fluorescence microscopy were used to study apoptosis and autophagy. The results of the present study demonstrate that IAV induces apoptosis by subversion of host autophagy via down-regulating components of autophagic machinery involved in autophagosome-lysosome fusion and lysosomal activity. Vitamin D3 restores the autophagic flux inhibited by IAV by upregulating the expression of Syntaxin-17 (STX17) and V-type proton ATPase subunit (ATP6V0A2) thereby causing a concomitant decrease in cellular apoptosis via a Vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) dependent mechanism. The present study suggests that Vitamin D3 is a potentially useful agent for limiting IAV-induced cellular injury via its pro-autophagic action.