Opposite Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice Depending on Fruit Maturity Stage on Gastrointestinal Physiological Parameters in Rat.
J Med Food. 2018 Jun ;21(6):617-624. Epub 2018 Feb 28. PMID: 29489444
The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg, b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α--adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg, b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α--adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg, b.w., i.p.), and loperamide (5 mg kg, b.w., p.o.). In vivo reverse effect of juice on GI physiological parameters was investigated using a charcoal meal test, phenol-red colorimetric method, loperamide-induced acute constipation, and castor oil-caused small-bowel hypersecretion. However, the opposite in vitro influence of juice on intestinal permeability homeostasis was assessed by the Ussing chamber system. Mature prickly pear juice administration stimulated significantly and dose dependently the GI transit (GIT; 8-26%) and gastric emptying (0.9-11%) in a rat model. Conversely, the immature prickly pear juice reduced gastric emptying (7-23%), GIT (10-28%), and diarrhea (59-88%). Moreover, the standard drugs have produced their antagonistic effects on GI physiological functions. The permeability of the isolated perfused rat small-intestine has a paradoxical response flowing prickly pear juices administration at diverse doses and maturity grade. Most importantly, the quantitative phytochemical analyses of both juices showed a different composition depending on the degree of maturity. In conclusion, the prickly pear juice at two distinct phases of maturity has different phytochemical characteristics and opposite effects on GI physiological actions in rat.