Pro-inflammatory effects of extracted urban fine particulate matter on human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Sep 17. Epub 2018 Sep 17. PMID: 30225694
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) constitutes the major part of urban air pollution and is a heterogeneous mixture of solid and liquid particles of different origin, size, and chemistry. Human exposure to PM in urban areas poses considerable and significant adverse effects on the respiratory system and human health in general. Major contributors to PM content are combustion-related sources such as diesel vehicles, household, and industrial heating. PM is composed of thousands of different high molecular weight organic compounds, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim of this study was to clarify the cytotoxic effects of the extract of actual urban PM1 with high benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content collected in Eastern European mid-sized city during winter heating season on human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Decreased cell viability, alteration of cell layer integrity, increased apoptosis, and oxidative stress were observed during the 3-day exposure to the PM extract. In addition, following PM exposure pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was upregulated at gene and protein levels. Morphology and motility changes, i.e., decreased cells' ability to cover scratch area, were also documented. We report here that the extract of urban PM1 may induce bronchial epithelium changes and render it pro-inflammatory and compromised within 3 days.