GC-(4→8)-GCG, A Proanthocyanidin Dimer from Camellia ptilophylla, Modulates Obesity and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 06 ;63(11):e1900082. Epub 2019 Apr 3. PMID: 30893514
SCOPE: Excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue leads to obesity and related chronic inflammation. This study aims to examine the effects of gallocatechin -(4→8)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (GC-(4→8)-GCG), a main proanthocyanidin dimer from Camellia ptilophylla (Cocoa tea), on adipocyte- and adipose-related inflammation in vivo and in vitro.
METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and GC-(4→8)-GCG (40 or 80 mg kgd) for 8 weeks. The metabolic profiles, adipose tissue hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration, and inflammatory cytokine production are investigated. Additionally, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are utilized to investigate the effect of GC-(4→8)-GCG on preadipocyte differentiation and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated inflammatory response in vitro. GC-(4→8)-GCG supplementation decreases HFD-induced epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) hypertrophy, suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production and macrophage infiltration in eWAT, and improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-induced obese mice. In vitro, GC-(4→8)-GCG shows a strong anti-adipogenic potential in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte by inhibiting the expression of key adipogenic transcription factors and decreasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB, Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways.
CONCLUSION: GC-(4→8)-GCG can modulate obesity and improve obesity-related insulin resistance by inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation and the related proinflammatory responses.