Procyanidin B2 mitigates endothelial endoplasmic reticulum stress through a PPARδ-Dependent mechanism.
Redox Biol. 2020 Sep 15 ;37:101728. Epub 2020 Sep 15. PMID: 32961442
Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes and its vascular complications. Procyanidins are enriched in many plant foods and have been demonstrated to exert several beneficial effects on diabetes, cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of procyanidin B2 (PCB2), the most widely distributed natural procyanidin, on ER stress evoked by high glucose in endothelial cells (ECs) and the underlying mechanisms. We showed that PCB2 mitigated the high glucose-activated ER stress pathways (PERK, IRE1α and ATF6) in human vascular ECs. In addition, we found that PCB2 attenuated endothelial ER stress via the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ). We demonstrated that PCB2 directly bound to and activated PPARδ. Conversely, GSK0660, a selective PPARδ antagonist, attenuated the suppressive effect of PCB2 on the ER stress signal pathway. Functionally, PCB2 ameliorated the high glucose-impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in mouse aortas. The protective effect of PCB2 on vasodilation was abolished in the aortas pretreated with GSK0660 or those from the EC-specific PPARδ knockout mice. Moreover, the protective effects of PCB2 on ER stress and endothelial dysfunction required the inter-dependent actions of PPARδ and AMPK. Collectively, we demonstrated that PCB2 mitigated ER stress and ameliorated vasodilation via a PPARδ-mediated mechanism beyond itsclassic action as a scavenger of free radicals. These findings further highlighted the novel roles of procyanidins in intervening the ER stress and metabolic disorders related to endothelial dysfunction.