Procyanidins extracted from the litchi pericarp attenuate atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia associated with consumption of a high fat diet in apolipoprotein-E knockout mice.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jan ;97:1639-1644. Epub 2017 Dec 7. PMID: 29793326
The beneficial effects of red wine against cardiovascular disease are associated with the abundant antioxidant polyphenols such as procyanidins. Recently, procyanidins extracted from the litchi pericarp (LPPC), a new source of procyanidins showed strong antioxidant activities in vitro, have been isolated and identified in our laboratory. The aim of present study was to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effects of LPPC on atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol) for 24 weeks. The results showed that LPPC intervention alleviated atherosclerosis, fat accumulation and hyperlipidemia in ApoE KO mice. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR results showed that LPPC can regulate several key genes involved in hepatic lipid homeostasis, such as increasing mRNA levels of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) which emerge as key regulators of lipid homeostasis at the transcriptional level, decreasing mRNA levels of 3-hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase which mediates cholestrol biosynthesis, and up-regulating the mRNA expressions of ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA1) which modulates cholesterol efflux. Thus, these results elucidated that LPPC could alleviate the lipid disorder especially hypercholesteromia and ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE-KO mice fed a WTD via regulating gene expression involved in hepatic lipid homeostasis effectively.