The promising effects of astaxanthin on lung diseases. - GreenMedInfo Summary
The Promising Effects of Astaxanthin on Lung Diseases.
Adv Nutr. 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11. PMID: 33179051
Astaxanthin (ASX) is a naturally occurring xanthophyll carotenoid. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that it is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, whereas other lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, and asthma are of high prevalence. In the past decade, mounting evidence has suggested a protective role for ASX against lung diseases. This article reviews the potential role of ASX in protecting against lung diseases, including lung cancer. It also summarizes the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ASX protects against pulmonary diseases, including regulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor/heme oxygenase-1 pathway, NF-κB signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 signaling, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, and modulating immune response. Several future directions are proposed in this review. However, most in vitro and in vivostudies have used ASX at concentrations that are not achievable by humans. Also, no clinical trials have been conducted and/or reported. Thus, preclinical studies with ASX treatment within physiological concentrations as well as human studies are required to examine the health benefits of ASX withrespect to lung diseases.