Blood polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, brain atrophy, cognitive decline, and dementia risk.
Alzheimers Dement. 2020 Oct 8. Epub 2020 Oct 8. PMID: 33090665
INTRODUCTION: We searched for consistent associations of an omega-3 index in plasma (sum of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) with several dementia-related outcomes in a large cohort of older adults.
METHODS: We included 1279 participants from the Three-City study, non-demented at the time of blood measurements at baseline, with face-to-face neuropsychological assessment and systematic detection of incident dementia over a 17-year follow-up. An ancillary study included 467 participants with up to three repeated brain imaging exams over 10 years.
RESULTS: In multivariable models, higher levels of plasma EPA+DHA were consistently associated with a lower risk of dementia (hazard ratio for 1 standard deviation = 0.87 [95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.98]), and a lower decline in global cognition (P = .04 for change over time), memory (P = .06), and medial temporal lobe volume (P = .02).
DISCUSSION: This prospective study provides compelling evidence for a relationship between long-chain omega-3 fatty acids levels and lower risks for dementia and related outcomes.