Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention by Sulforaphane in a Preclinical Mouse Model is Associated with Inhibition of Fatty Acid Metabolism.
Carcinogenesis. 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13. PMID: 29668854
Krishna B Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a rather unique and targetable mechanism of human prostate cancer. We have shown previously that oral administration of sulforaphane (SFN) significantly inhibits the incidence and/or burden of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. The present study used cellular models of prostate cancer and archived plasma/adenocarcinoma tissues and sections from the TRAMP study to demonstrate inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by SFN treatment in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and castration-resistant (22Rv1) human prostate cancer cells with SFN (5 and 10μM) resulted in downregulation of protein and mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), but not ATP citrate lyase. Protein and mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), which facilitates fatty acid uptake by mitochondria for β-oxidation, were also decreased following SFN treatment in both cell lines. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in expression of FASN and ACC1 proteins in prostate adenocarcinoma sections of SFN-treated TRAMP mice when compared with controls. SFN administration to TRAMP mice resulted in a significantdecrease in plasma and/or prostate adenocarcinoma levels of total free fatty acids, total phospholipids, acetyl-CoA, and ATP. Consistent with these results, number of neutral lipid droplets was lower in the prostate adenocarcinoma sections of SFN-treated TRAMP mice than in control tumors. Collectively, these observations indicate that prostate cancer chemoprevention by SFN in TRAMP mice is associated with inhibition of fatty acid metabolism.