Protective effect of andrographolide against STZ induced Alzheimer's disease in experimental rats: possible neuromodulation and Aβanalysis.
Inflammopharmacology. 2021 Aug ;29(4):1157-1168. Epub 2021 Jul 7. PMID: 34235591
STZ is a glucosamine-nitrosourea compound, causes dysfunctioning of insulin receptors in the brain and disrupts glucose metabolism, produces cognitive decline and AD-like symptoms. ICV injection of STZ causes accumulation of Aβ and cognitive dysfunctions. Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a major bioactive constituent of Andrographis paniculata, has various biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinesterase, and neuroprotective properties. The study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect ofANDRO against ICV-STZ induced AD-like symptoms in rats. To conduct the study, the Wistar rat received two injections of STZ (3 mg/kg) through the ICV route. Rats were treated with three different doses of ANDRO (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) and donepezil (5 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days. The behavioral impairments were analyzed on weekly basis. Subsequently, rats were sacrificed for the assessment of biochemical (MDA, Nitrite, GSH, SOD, Catalase and AChE), neuroinflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-16, and TNF-α), neurotransmitters (glutamate and GABA), level of Aβand p tau in the hippocampus on day 21st. Our result indicated that ANDRO treatment provided a protective effect against STZ induced behavioral deficits and changes in the biochemical, neuroinflammatory mediators, and neurotransmitters of the hippocampus. Further, ANDRO also reduced the level of Aβand p tau in the rat hippocampus. These findings suggested that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinesterase potential of ANDRO contributed to its neuroprotective effect as well as promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cognitive impairment and AD-like symptoms.