Protective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 against chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced memory impairments in rats.
Behav Brain Res. 2021 Feb 2:113146. Epub 2021 Feb 2. PMID: 33545198
Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is one of the most active components found in ginseng and provides important benefits to the central nervous system, especially for the improvement of learning and memory. Previous studies demonstrated that Rb1 protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia and exhibited memory-enhancing effects in the SAMP8 mouse model. However, the effects of Rb1 against chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced cognitive impairments, especially the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward directed instrumental conditioning have not been investigated. In this study, rats were subjected to CRS (6 h/day) for 28 days. Thereafter, behavioural tests including reward-directed instrumental conditioning task (RICT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) task were conducted. Administered of Rb1 (6.75 and 13.5 mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably ameliorated the memory impairments caused by CRS as evident from theresults of RICT and MWM task, and this effect was accompanied by noticeable alterations in the levels of oxidative markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation) in the hippocampus. Additionally, Rb1 reduced the ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleavedcaspase-9, increased the levels of synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95) and activated the BDNF/TrkB pathway in the hippocampus. In summary, the present study demonstrated that Rb1 rescues cognitive deficits induced by CRS is partially mediated by antagonizing oxidative stress andapoptosis, improving synaptic plasticity and restoring the BDNF/TrkB signalling pathway. This newly discovered effect of Rb1 sheds light on its applications in the development of therapeutic interventions to alleviate the deleterious effects of chronic stress.