Protective effect of ginsenoside Rg5 against kidney injury via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the MAPK signaling pathway in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
Pharmacol Res. 2020 Mar 7 ;155:104746. Epub 2020 Mar 7. PMID: 32156650
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common and serious complication of diabetes and causes kidney failure. Ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) is an important monomer in the main protopanaxadiol component of black ginseng. Rg5 has exhibited some beneficial biological effects, such as anti-cancer, neuroprotection, and anti-depression, but the effect of Rg5 on DN and its potential mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Rg5 on kidney injury of C57BL/6 diabetic mice induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. After treatment with different concentration of Rg5 (30 and 60 mg kg·d) for 6 consecutive weeks, the fasting blood glucose, insulin levels, serum creatinine, serum urea, and serum UA in Rg5-treated DN mice were significantly reduced, while the renal histopathology was remarkably improved, compared with untreated DN mice. Moreover, ROS production, oxidative stress markers (MDA, SOD, and GSH-PX), Nox4 and TXNIP expressions of kidney in DN mice were significantly reduced after Rg5 treatment. Additionally, the expression levels of the NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1) and the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly inhibited, and the expression of NF-kB and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK were also decreased with Rg5 treatment compared with no treatment in DN mice. Together, our results indicate that Rg5 attenuated renal injury in diabetic mice by inhibiting oxidative stress andNLRP3 inflammasome activation to reduce inflammatory responses, indicating that Rg5 is a potential compound to prevent or control diabetic renal injury.