Protective effect of Indole-3-carbinol, an NF-κB inhibitor in experimental paradigm of Parkinson's disease: In silico and in vivo studies.
Brain Behav Immun. 2020 Nov ;90:108-137. Epub 2020 Aug 12. PMID: 32800927
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, majorly with symptoms of motor dysfunction. Study was performed to explore the effect of nuclear factorκB (NF-κB) inhibitors against neurobehavioral abnormalities and neuroinflammation in PD. Cost effective in silico approaches of docking-based ligand -target complex predictions and optimal physicochemical properties were utilised to identify lead NF-κB inhibitor using database. Our studies revealed the potential hit Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) which was considered for the next phase, pharmacological validations. Intranigral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats is utilized as a neuroinflmmation model of PD. In the present study it caused an impairment in motor functions, its coordination, learning and memory as demonstrated in rotarod apparatus, beam balance test, open field test and Morris water maze test. Chronic administration of I3C for 21 days in intranigral LPS treated rats led to a significant improvement in motor functions, coordination, learning and memory which were associated with a decrease in the activity of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Further, it was found to inhibit NF-κB whose levels increased after LPS administration. Moreover, decreased levels of malondialdehyde and increased levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase andcatalase were observed in cortex and striatum after I3C administration in LPS rats. These results suggest a possible neuroprotective effect of I3C via amelioration of LPS-induced behavioural alterations, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation which in turn is attributed to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory (NF-κB inhibition) property. The effect produced by I3C (50 mg/kg) was found to be comparable with levodopa-carbidopa combination (LD:CD) while, I3C (50 mg/kg) in combination with LD:CD exhibited a potentiating effect in improving motor impairments and cognitive deficit. The results thus depict I3C as a promising agent to delay neurodegeneration of the neurons in PD with improvement in motor functions and cognitive function.