Protective effect of myricetin, apigenin, and hesperidin pretreatments on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2021 Apr 27:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 27. PMID: 33905277
: Major side effects of cyclophosphamide administration are immunosuppression and myelosuppression. The immunomodulatory effects of plant bioactive compounds on chemotherapy drug-induced immunosuppression may have significant effects in cancer treatment. For this reason, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of myricetin, apigenin, and hesperidin in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in rats.: In our study, a total of 64 rats were used, and divided into eight equal groups. These groups were: control, cyclophosphamide, cyclophosphamide + myricetin (100 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide + myricetin (200 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide + apigenin (100 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide + apigenin (200 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide + hesperidin (100 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide + hesperidin (200 mg/kg). Myricetin, apigenin, andhesperidin pretreatments were performed for 14 d, while cyclophosphamide application (200 mg/kg) was performed only on the 4th day of the study. Levels of humoral antibody production, quantitative hemolysis, macrophage phagocytosis, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and natural killer cell cytotoxicity were determined. In addition, we measured pro-inflammatory cytokines, and followed lipid peroxidation and antioxidant markers and examined the histology of bone marrow, liver and spleen in all groups.: During cyclophosphamide treatment, all three phytochemicals increased the levels of humoral antibody production, quantitative hemolysis, macrophage phagocytosis, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, antioxidant markers, and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Moreover, the agents decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, reduced lipid peroxidation markers, and reduced tissue damage in liver, spleen, and bone marrow.: Our study demonstrated that myricetin, apigenin, and hesperidin can reduce the immunosuppressive effect of cyclophosphamide by enhancing both innate and adaptive immune responses, and these compounds may be useful immunomodulatory agents during cancer chemotherapy.