Protective effect of Prunella vulgaris var. L extract against blue light induced damages in ARPE-19 cells and mouse retina.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Dec 5. Epub 2019 Dec 5. PMID: 31811921
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of leading causes that induce severe visual impairment and loss in the elderly. Previous studies have suggested that blue light (BL) could induce retinal degeneration, which is a major cause of the onset and development of severe AMD. In the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, A2E, a lipofuscin fluorophore, is accumulated with aging. When A2E is exposed to BL, it is easily oxidized to A2E-epoxides, leading to oxidative stress and inflammatory response in retina. The aim of this study was to investigate protective effect of Prunella vulagris (P.V) extract against oxidative stress and inflammation caused by BL, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in the cultured RPE cells and balb-c mice. In both model studies, P.V extract activated NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2)/hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway, followed by inhibition of ROS/MDA production, GSH depletion and reduction in SOD activity. Furthermore, P.V extract inhibited upregulation of inflammatory related genes (interlukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF A)) and BL induced RPE cell death, determined by cell viability and histological analyses. The mechanism of protection against inflammation by P.V extract involves inhibition of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) along with degradation of NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IkB alpha). The results suggest that P.V extract could be a potential intervention to prevent the onset and development of severe AMD.