Protective effect of Vitamin D3 against lead induced hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress, immunosuppressive and calcium homeostasis disorders in rat.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2019 Nov ;72:103246. Epub 2019 Aug 23. PMID: 31465891
Lead (Pb) is an extremely poisonous, non-essential trace element and toxicity develops in humans following frequent exposure to the heavy metal in polluted environmental and occupational settings. Pb induces hepatic damage through the depletion of the antioxidant system, enhancing cellular oxidative stress and stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Although the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of vitamin D(VD) are well-established, a minority of studies measured the protective actions of VDagainst Pb toxicity. Therefore, this work studied the effects of vitamin VDtherapy on the fundamental molecular basis underlying hepatic injury induced by chronic Pb toxicity. Twenty-four adult male rats were distributed equally into the negative controls (NC), positive controls (PC) and VD3 groups. While both the PC and VD3 groups received Pb-acetate in drinking water (1000 mg/L) for four weeks, the latter group also received intramuscular VD3 injections (1000 IU/kg; 3 days/week) simultaneously with Pb. The liver enzymes together with the serum and hepatic tissue Pb concentrations increased markedly in the PC group compared with the NC group. Pb toxicity also drastically induced hepatocyte apoptosis/necrosis, increased the hepatic tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β, IL-4&TNF-α) as well as reduced the anti-oxidative enzymes (GSH, GPx&CAT) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, compared with the NC group. Pb also significantly decreased the serum concentrations of VD3 and Ca. Additionally, the hepatic expressions of VD receptor, Cyp24a1 enzyme, L-type Ca-channel, calbindin-D&-D, calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II were significantly upregulated, whereas the VD binding protein, CYP2R1 enzyme and T-type Ca-channel were markedly inhibited at the gene and protein levels following Pb intoxication. VD3 alleviated the hepatic damage, inhibited the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory molecules as well as upregulated the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory markers and restored the expression of the VD/Ca+ regulatory molecules compared with the PC group. VD3 supplementation discloses promising protective effects against Pb-induced hepatic damage, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions as well as by modulating the hepatocyte calcium homeostatic molecules.