Protective effects of betulinic acid on intestinal mucosal injury induced by cyclophosphamide in mice.
Pharmacol Rep. 2019 Oct ;71(5):929-939. Epub 2019 May 7. PMID: 31450028
BACKGROUND: Betulinic acid (BA) is a plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid with a variety of biological activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential protective role of BA against intestinal mucosal injury induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP) treatment.
METHODS: Mice were pretreated with BA daily (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg/kg) for 14 days, then injected intraperitoneally with CYP (50 mg/kg) for 2 days.
RESULTS: BA pretreatment reduced the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), decreased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in small intestine, increased villus hight/crypt depth ratio and restored the morphology of intestinal villi in CYP-induced mice. Moreover, BA pretreatment could significantly down-regulate the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-17, IL-12 (P70) and tumor necrosis factorα (TNF-α), reduced production of chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and enhanced the levels of anti-inflammatory such as IL-2 and IL-10 in serum, and decreased the mRNA expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α in intestine of CYP-induced mice. Furthermore, RT-PCR demonstrated that BA improved intestinal physical and immunological barrier in CYP-stimulated mice by enhancing the mRNA expressions of zonula occluden 1 (ZO-1) and Claudin-1.
CONCLUSIONS: BA might be considered as an effective agent in the amelioration of the intestinal mucosal resulting from CYP treatment.