Protective Effects of Black Raspberry () Extract against Hypercholesterolemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats Fed High-Fat and High-Choline Diets.
Nutrients. 2020 Aug 14 ;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 14. PMID: 32824008
Choline is converted to trimethylamine by gut microbiota and further oxidized to trimethylamine--oxide (TMAO) by hepatic flavin monooxygenases. Positive correlation between TMAO and chronic diseases has been reported. Polyphenols in black raspberry (BR), especially anthocyanins, possess various biological activities. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of BR extract on the level of choline-derived metabolites, serum lipid profile, and inflammation markers in rats fed high-fat and high-choline diets. Forty female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups and fed for 8 weeks as follows: CON (AIN-93G diet), HF (high-fat diet), HFC (HF + 1.5% choline water), and HFCB (HFC + 0.6% BR extract). Serum levels of TMAO, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and cecal trimethylamine (TMA) level were significantly higher in the HFC than in the HFCB. BR extract decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and protein expression of NF-κB and COX-2 in liver tissue. These results suggest that consistent intake of BR extract might alleviate hypercholesterolemia and hepatic inflammation induced by excessive choline with a high-fat diet via lowering elevated levels of cecal TMA and serum TMAO in rats.