Protective Effects of Defatted Sticky Rice Bran Extracts on the Early Stages of Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats.
Molecules. 2019 Jun 6 ;24(11). Epub 2019 Jun 6. PMID: 31174320
Use of natural products is one strategy to lessen cancer incidence. Rice bran, especially from colored rice, contains high antioxidant activity. Cancer chemopreventive effects of hydrophilic purple rice bran extract (PRBE) and white rice bran extract (WRBE) on carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesion formation in livers of rats were investigated. A 15-week administration of PRBE and WRBE did not induce hepatic glutathione-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci formation as the biomarker of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PRBE and WRBE at 500 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased number and size of GST-P positive foci in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated rats. The number of proliferating nuclear antigen positive hepatocytes were also reduced in preneoplastic lesions in both PRBE and WRBE fed DEN-treated rats. Notably, the inhibitory effect on GST-P positive foci formation induced by DEN during the initiation stage was found only in rats treated by PRBE for five weeks. Furthermore, PRBE attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines involving genes including TNF-α, iNOS, and NF-κB. PBRE contained a higher number of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds and vitamin E. PRBE might protect DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats via attenuation of cellular inflammation and cell proliferation. Anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, as well as vitaminE, might play a role in cancer chemopreventive activity in rice bran extract.