Protective effects of lycopene on hippocampal neurotoxicity and memory impairment induced by bisphenol A in rats.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2020 Mar 10:960327120909882. Epub 2020 Mar 10. PMID: 32153214
E M El Morsy
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to produce polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins which are used in many consumer products. Most people encounter BPA in their daily routines. However, it has been heavily reported that BPA has a neurotoxic effect. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene on cognitive deficits induced by a high dose of BPA focusing on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and memory retrieval in adult male rats. Therefore, 72 rats were divided into four groups: control group, BPA group (50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) 3 days a week for 42 days, lycopene group (10 mg/kg bw) daily for 42 days, and lycopene + BPA group. Concurrent treatment of lycopene with BPA improved the learning and cognition memory in Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests along with an increase in acetylcholine esterase activity as well as inhibition of oxidative stress by restoring reduced glutathione and suppressing malondialdehyde hippocampal level to their normal levels. Mechanistically, lycopene upregulated the protein expression of tyrosine receptor kinase B, which resulted in an upsurge in its downstream cascades MAPK/ERK1/2/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway in the hippocampus of BPA-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, concurrent treatment of lycopene with BPA prevented apoptosis by marked decrease in Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) gene expression and caspase 3 activity while restoring B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene expression. In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that lycopene exerted a neuroprotective effect against BPA intoxication in hippocampi of rats via its antioxidant properties, activation of MAPK/ERK pathway, and inhibiting a neuronal apoptosis which reflected on improving the learning and cognition memory.