Protective effects of Peganum harmala L. extract, harmine and harmaline against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006 Jul ;58(7):967-74. PMID: 16805957
Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles has been implicated in the process of atherogenesis. Antioxidants that prevent LDL from oxidation may reduce atherosclerosis. We have investigated the protective effect of Peganum harmala-extract (P-extract) and the two major alkaloids (harmine and harmaline) from the seeds of P. harmala against CuSO4-induced LDL oxidation. Through determination of the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase, the extract (P-extract) and compounds were found to possess an inhibitory effect. Moreover, harmaline and harmine reduced the rate of vitamin E disappearance and exhibited a significant free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH*). However, harmaline had a markedly higher antioxidant capacity than harmine in scavenging or preventive capacity against free radicals as well as inhibiting the aggregation of the LDL protein moiety (apolipoprotein B) induced by oxidation. The results suggested that P. harmala compounds could be a major source of compounds that inhibit LDL oxidative modification induced by copper.