Protective role of vitamin D against oxidative stress in diabetic retinopathy. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Protective role of vitamin D against oxidative stress in diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2021 Nov ;37(8):e3447. Epub 2021 Mar 24. PMID: 33760363
Maria Stella Valle
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. There is much evidence showing that a high level of mitochondrial overproduction of reactive oxygen species in the diabetic retina contributes in modifying cellular signalling and leads to retinal cell damage and finally to the development of DR pathogenesis. In the last few decades, it has been reported that vitamin D is involved in DR pathogenesis. Vitamin D, traditionally known as an essential nutrient crucial in bone metabolism, has also been proven to be a very effective antioxidant. It has been demonstrated that it modulates the production of advanced glycosylated end products, as well as several pathways including protein kinase C, the polyol pathway leading to the reduction of free radical formation. It prevents the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B, preventing the inflammatory response, acting as an immunomodulator, and modulates autophagy and apoptosis. In this review, we explore the molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D protects the eye from oxidative stress, in order to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation may be useful to mitigate the deleterious effects of free radicals in DR.