Protein-Bound Polysaccharides fromInduce RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL-Mediated Necroptosis in ER-Positive Breast Cancer and Amelanotic Melanoma Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2020 Jun 13 ;54(4):591-604. PMID: 32531147
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The induction of necroptosis, a form of caspase-independent cell death, represents one of the most promising anticancer therapeutic modalities, as necroptosis serves as an alternative way to eliminate apoptosis-resistant tumor cells. Here, we investigated whether protein-bound polysaccharides (PBPs) derived from the fungus(CV) induce the necroptotic death pathway in breast cancer and melanoma cells.
METHODS: MCF-7 and SKMel-188 cells were exposed to PBPs either alone or in combination with necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), GSK'872 or necrosulfonamide (NSA), pharmacological inhibitors of the kinases receptor-interacting protein 1 kinase (RIPK1), receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), respectively, which are involved in necroptotic processes. The effects of cellular treatment with these inhibitors were quantified by measuring cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assays, respectively. The morphological changes induced in these cells were detected using holotomographic (HT) microscopy. Activation of the TNF-α/TNFR1 pathway in the PBP-stimulated cells was evaluated using TNF-α-neutralizing antibody, qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence-based assays.
RESULTS: PBPs showed effective antitumor activity against MCF-7 and SKMel-188 cells. Cotreatment of the cells with Nec-1, GSK'872 or NSA abrogated PBP-induced cell death, and the cells were protected against membrane rupture. Moreover, breast cancer cell death caused by PBPs was mediated by induced activation of the TNF-α/TNFR1 pathway. Interestingly, the melanoma cells did not express TNF-α or TNFR1 after PBP stimulation; instead, PBPs triggered intracellular ROS generation, which was partially diminished by the inhibitors Nec-1, GSK'872 and NSA.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PBPs from the fungus CV induce RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL-mediated necroptosis in breast cancer and melanoma cells, providing novel insights into the molecular effects of PBPs on cancer cells.