A Proteomic Approach to Uncover Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Oleocanthal against Oxidative Stress.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Aug 8 ;19(8). Epub 2018 Aug 8. PMID: 30096819
Neurodegenerative diseases represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that share common features like abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Cahomeostasis, excitotoxicity, impairment of mitochondrial functions, apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Despite recent advances in the research of biomarkers, early diagnosis, and pharmacotherapy, there are no treatments that can halt the progression of these age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that long-term intake of a Mediterranean diet, characterized by a high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, correlates with better cognition in aged populations. Olive oil phenolic compounds have been demonstrated to have different biological activities like antioxidant, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Oleocanthal, a phenolic component of extra virgin olive oil, is getting more and more scientific attention due to its interesting biological activities. The aim of this research was to characterize the neuroprotective effects of oleocanthal against H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress in neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, protein expression profiling, combined with pathways analyses, was used to investigate the molecular events related to the protective effects. Oleocanthal was demonstrated to counteract oxidative stress, increasing cell viability, reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and increasing reduced glutathione (GSH) intracellular level. Proteomic analysis revealed that oleocanthal significantly modulates 19 proteins in the presence of H₂O₂. In particular, oleocanthal up-regulated proteins related to the proteasome, the chaperone heat shock protein 90, the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase, and the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin 1. Moreover, oleocanthal protection seems to be mediated by Akt activation. These data offer new insights into the molecular mechanisms behind oleocanthal protection against oxidative stress.