Protocatechuic acid and quercetin glucosides in onions attenuate changes induced by high fat diet in rats.
Food Funct. 2020 Apr 30 ;11(4):3585-3597. PMID: 32285077
Yellow onion waste from industrial peeling was used to obtain three pure preparations: protocatechuic acid (PA), quercetin diglycosides (QD) and quercetin monoglycosides (QM). PA contained 61% protocatechuic acid, QD contained 35% quercetin diglucosides, mainly quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside, and QM contained 41% monoglucosides, mainly quercetin-4'-glucoside. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by PA. The effects of preparations on the digestive functions of the gastrointestinal tract of rats as well as the biochemical parameters and antioxidant capacity of the blood in model research on Wistar rats sustained by a high-fat diet were assessed (5 groups per 8 animals). The results of the present experiment showed that different onion phenolic preparations differently modulated the enzymatic activity of faecal (P<0.001) and caecal (P<0.001) microbiota. For instance, the QD preparation but not QM efficiently reduced the faecal and caecal bacterialβ-glucuronidase activity. Both protocatechuic acid and quercetin monoglycosides showed a beneficial effect by regulating blood lipids (reduction of TC (P<0.001) and TG (P<0.001), non-HDL increase in HDL (P<0.001)), thereby lowering the risk factors for atherosclerotic lesions AI (P = 0.038) and AII (P = 0.013). In addition, onion phenols showed a strong antioxidant effect, however, with a different mechanism: protocatechuic acid via serum ACL (P = 0.033) increase and hepatic GSSG (P = 0.070) decrease, QM via ACW (P<0.001) increase and hepatic TBARS (P = 0.002) decrease, and QD via serum ACW increase and hepatic GSSG decrease. It can be concluded that onion polyphenols with a lower molar weight, i.e. QM more preferably affect the blood lipid profile than QD. However QD more efficiently reduced the faecal and caecal bacterialβ-glucuronidase activity.