Proton pump inhibitors and dysbiosis: Current knowledge and aspects to be clarified.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jun 14 ;25(22):2706-2719. PMID: 31235994
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are common medications within the practice of gastroenterology. These drugs, which act through the irreversible inhibition of the hydrogen/potassium pump (H+/K+-ATPase pump) in the gastric parietal cells, are used in the treatment of several acid-related disorders. PPIs are generally well tolerated but, through the long-term reduction of gastric acid secretion, can increase the risk of an imbalance in gut microbiota composition (., dysbiosis). The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem in which microbes coexist and interact with the human host. Indeed, the resident gut bacteria are needed for multiple vital functions, such as nutrient and drug metabolism, the production of energy, defense against pathogens, the modulation of the immune system and support of the integrity of the gut mucosal barrier. The bacteria are collected in communities that vary in density and composition within each segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, every change in the gut ecosystem has been connected to an increased susceptibility or exacerbation of various GI disorders. The aim of this review is to summarize the recently available data on PPI-related microbiota alterations in each segment of the GI tract and to analyze the possible involvement of PPIs in the pathogenesis of several specific GI diseases.