PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS INCREASE THE OVERALL RISK OF DEVELOPING BACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CIRRHOSIS.
Arq Gastroenterol. 2018 Jan-Mar;55(1):28-32. PMID: 29561973
Illce B Lázaro-Pacheco
BACKGROUND: Acid suppression has been associated with adverse events; such as, enteric infections. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are frequently prescribed in patients with cirrhosis, but is unclear if PPI are associated with the development of bacterial infections in these patients.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of PPI intake on the development of bacterial, viral and fungal infections in patients with cirrhosis.
METHODS: An observational, retrospective, historic cohort study. The exposed cohort included patients with cirrhosis with chronic use of PPI. The non-exposed cohort had not been using PPI. The follow-up period was 3 years, searching in the medical records for any events of bacterial infection confirmed by bacteriological culture.
RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen patients met the selection criteria, 44 (39%) had chronic use of PPI; of them, 28 (63.6%) patients had not a clear clinical indication to justify the prescription of PPI. Twenty four (21.2%) patients developed bacterial infections during the follow-up period. In the univariate analysis, decompensated cirrhosis (Child B/C), presence of ascites, history of variceal bleeding, and chronic consumption of PPI were risk factors related to the development of infections. But, in the adjusted multivariate analysis only the chronic use of PPI was associated with development of infections (RR=3.6; 95% CI=1.1-12.3; P=0.04).
CONCLUSION: There is an over-prescription of PPI without a justified clinical indication. The long-term consumption of PPI in patients with cirrhosis is associated with the development of bacterial infections; therefore these drugs must be carefully prescribed in this specific population.